The contributions of snow, fog, and dry deposition to the summer flux of anions and cations at Summit, Greenland


Experiments were performed during the period May-July of 1993 at Summit, Greenland. Aerosol mass size distributions as well as daily average concentrations of several anionic and cationic species were measured. Dry deposition velocities for SO2-4 were estimated using surrogate surfaces (symmetric airfoils) as well as impactor data. Real-time concentrations of particles greater than 0.5 μm and greater than 0.01 μm were measured. Snow and fog samples from nearly all of the events occurring during the field season were collected. Overall, results indicate that snow deposition of chemical species is the dominant flux mechanism during the summer at Summit and that all three deposition processes should be considered when estimating atmospheric concentrations based on ice core chemical signals. -from Authors