A simple model is presented to estimate atmospheric concentrations of chemical species that exist primarily as aerosols based on snow core/ice core chemistry at Summit, Greenland. The model considers the processes of snow, fog, and dry deposition. The deposition parameters for each of the processes are estimated for SO42− and Ca2+ and are based on experiments conducted during the 1993 and 1994 summer field seasons. The seasonal mean atmospheric concentrations are estimated based on the deposition parameters and snow cores obtained during the field seasons. The ratios of the estimated seasonal mean airborne concentration divided by the measured mean concentration ( C¯a,est/C¯a,meas ) for SO42− over the 1993 and 1994 field seasons are 0.85 and 0.95, respectively. The C¯a,est/C¯a,meas ratios for Ca2+ are 0.45 and 0.90 for the 1993 and 1994 field seasons. The uncertainties in the estimated atmospheric concentrations range from 30% to 40% and are due to variability in the input parameters. The model estimates the seasonal mean atmospheric SO42− and Ca2+ concentrations to within 15% and 55%, respectively. Although the model is not directly applied to ice cores, the application of the model to ice core chemical signals is briefly discussed. Copyright 1995 by the American Geophysical Union.
A simple model to estimate atmospheric concentrations of aerosol chemical species based on snow core chemistry at Summit, Greenland